Migration, Securitization and Social Cohesion  


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***Downloadable publications in WHITE***


Göksu, F. & Leerkes, A. (2022) Political participation as transformative reactive moblization: A qualitative study of voter preferences among Turkish origin residents in the Netherlands, Comparative Migration Studies

Jonitz, E., & Leerkes, A. (2022). Making asylum work? Civic stratification and labor‐related regularization among rejected asylum seekers in Germany. Law & Policy, 44(1), 23-43

Sinnige, M., van Houte, M., & Leerkes, A. (2022). Talking about return. Governmental caseworkers' regulative, normative and cultural‐cognitive strategies during “return conversations” with irregularised migrants. International Migration, DOI: 10.1111/imig.13051


Leerkes, A., Fokkema, T., & Jennissen, R. (2021). Community multiculturalism and immigrant crime. European Journal of Criminology, DOI 10.1177/14773708211065911y

Van Houte, M., Leerkes, A., Slipper, A. & Breuls, L. Globalised citizenship and the perceived legitimacy of immigration control: narratives and acts of resistance in immigration detention, Migration Studies, doi.org/10.1093/migration/mnaa034.


Timmerman, R., Leerkes, A., Staring, R. & Delvino, N.‘Free In, Free Out’: Exploring Dutch Firewall Protections for Irregular Migrant Victims of Crime European Journal of Migration and Law 22(3): 427-455.

Leerkes, A. & Van Houte, Beyond the deportation regime. Beyond the deportation regime: differential state interests and capacities in dealing with (non-) deportability in Europe, Citizenship Studies, 24:3, 319-338.

Leerkes, A. & Fokkema, T. & Bening, J. Community multiculturalism and self-reported immigrant crime: Testing three theoretical mechanisms. Merit Working papers


Van Houte, M. & Leerkes, A. (2019) Dealing with (non-)deportability A comparative policy analysis of the post-entry migration enforcement regimes of Western European countries. Maastricht / Rotterdam: Maastricht University & Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Leerkes, A., Martinez, R.,& Groeneveld, P. (2019) Minority paradoxes. Ethnic and generational differences in self-reported offending and official crime statistics. British Journal of Criminology 59(1): 166-187.

Timmerman, R., Leerkes, A., & Staring, R. (2019) Safe reporting of crime for victims and witnesses with irregular migration status in the Netherlands, Oxford: Compas, Oxford University.


Leerkes, A. (2018) Understanding international (im)mobility in times of gated globalism: toward an institutional migration theory, Inaugural lecture, Maastricht University.

Leerkes, A., Engbersen, G., Snel, E., & De Boom, J (2018) Civic stratification and crime. A comparison of Asylum Migration With Different Legal Statuses, Crime, Law and Social Change 69(1): 41-66.

Leerkes, A. (2018) Vissza a szegényházhoz? Az illegális bevándorlók szociális védelme és társadalmi kontrollja a jóléti állam árnyékában, Esély : társadalom- és szociálpolitikai folyóirat 29(1): 17-41.


Leerkes, A., & Kox, M. (2017) Pressured into a preference to leave? A study on the ‘specific’ deterrent effects and perceived legitimacy of immigration detention, Law & Society Review 51(4): 895-929)

Engbersen, G., Leerkes, A., Scholten, P. & Snel, E. (2017) The intra-EU Mobility Regime: Differentiation, Stratification and Contradictions, Migration Studies 5(3): 337-355.



Leerkes, A., Van Os, R. & Boersema, E. (2016) What drives 'soft deportation'? Understanding the rise of Assisted Voluntary Return in the Netherlands, Population, Space & Place DOI 10.1002/psp.2059.

Engbersen, G., Dagevos, J., Jennissen, R., Bakker, L. & Leerkes, A. (2016) No time to lose: from reception to integration of asylum migrants. The Hague: Wetenschappelijke Raad voor het Regeringsbeleid, Sociaal-Cultureel Planbureau, Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek en Documentatiecentrum.

Leerkes, A. (2016) Back to the Poorhouse? Social Protection and Social Control of Unauthorized Immigrants in the Shadow of the Welfare State, Journal of European Social Policy 26 (2): 140-154.

Leerkes, A. & Kox, M. (2016). Pressured into deportation? Detainees' (un)willingness to 'return' and the moderating influence of international relations. In R. Furman, D. Epps and G. Lamphear Detaining the Immigrant Other Global and Transnational Issues, pp. 15-26, New York: Oxford University Press.

Leerkes, A. (2016) Managing migration through legitimacy? Alternatives to the criminalisation of unauthorised migration. In Carrera, S. & Guild, E. (eds) Irregular Migration, Trafficking, and Smugglingof Human Beings. Policy Dilemmas in the EU, pp. 24-32, Brussels: Centre for European Policy Studies.


Leerkes, A. (2015) How (un)restrictive are we? 'Adjusted' and 'expected' asylum recognition rates in Europe. The Hague: WODC.

Snel, E., 't Hart, M. & Leerkes, A. ‘Mind the Gap’ Security and the sense of security in Rotterdam. Rotterdam: Erasmus Univerity Rotterdam


Engbersen, G., Leerkes, A. & Snel, E. (2014). Ethnicity, crime and immigration in the
Netherlands. In Bucerius, S.& Tonry, M. (Eds), The Oxford Handbook of Ethnicity, Crime, and Immigration, pp. 766-790, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Google books


Leerkes, A., Bachmeier, J.& Leach, M. (2013), When the Border is 'Everywhere': State-level Variation in Migration Control and Changing Settlement Patterns of the Unauthorized Immigrant Population in the United States, International Migration Review 47 (4): 910–943. abstract

Kulu-Glasgow, I. & Leerkes, A.(2013), Restricting Turkish marriage migration? National policy, couples’ coping strategies and international obligations, Migration Letters 10(3): 369-382. abstract

Engbersen, G., Leerkes, A., Grabowska-Lusinska, I., Snel, E.& Burgers, J. (2013), On the Differential Attachments of Migrants from Central and Eastern Europe: A Typology of Labour Migration, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 39(6): 959-981. abstract

Leerkes, A. & Broeders, D. (2013), Deportable and not so deportable: Formal and informal functions of administrative immigration detention, in B. Anderson, M. Gibney and E. Paoletti (Eds.) The Social, Political and Historical Contours of Deportation, pp. 79-104, New York: Springer

Leerkes, A., Van der Leun, J. & Engbersen, G. (2013), Crime among irregular immigrants and the influence of crimmigration processes, in Guia, M., Van der Leun, J. & Van der Woude, M. (Eds.) Social Control and Justice: Crimmigration in the Age of Fear, pp. 267-288. The Hague: Eleven International Publishers Contents


Leerkes, A., Varsanyi, M. & Engbersen, G.(2012), Local Limits to Migration Control: Practices of Selective Migration Policing in a Restrictive National Policy Context, Police Quarterly 15 (4): 446-475.

Leerkes, A., Engbersen, G. & Van der Leun, J. (2012), Crime among irregular immigrants and the influence of internal border control, Crime, Law and Social Change 12 (1): 15-38.

Leerkes, A., Leach, M. & Bachmeier, J. (2012), ‘Borders Behind the Border. An Exploration of State-level Differences in Migration Control and their Effects on U.S. Migration Patterns’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 38 (1): 111-129.


Leerkes, A., & Kulu-Glasgow, I. (2011), Playing hard(er) to get: The State, International Couples, and the Income Requirement,  European Journal of Migration and Law 13 (1): 95-121.


Leerkes, A. & Broeders, D. (2010),‘A case of mixed motives? Formal and informal functions of administrative immigration detention, British Journal of Criminology 50 (5): 830-850. abstract

Leerkes, A. & Bernasco, W. (2010), The spatial concentration of illegal residence and neighborhood safety, Journal of Urban Affairs, 32 (3) 367-392. abstract

Engbersen, G. & Leerkes, A. (2010), ‘Towards a Smarter and More Just Fortress Europe’, in: Frost, N., Freilich, J. and Clear, T. (Eds.) Contemporary Issues in Criminal Justice Policy, 1st Edition. Belmont: Wadsworth Pub Co.Pp. 211-220.


Leerkes, A. (2009) Illegal Residence and Public Safety in the Netherlands. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.


Leerkes, A., Engbersen, G. & Van San, M. (2007), Shadow Places. Patterns of Spatial Concentration and Incorporation of Irregular Immigrants in the Netherlands, Urban Studies, 44 (8), pp. 1491-1516. abstract


Snel, E., Engbersen, G. & Leerkes, A. (2006), Transnational Involvement and Social Integration, Global Networks 6 (3): 285-308. abstract

Engbersen, G., Van San, M. & Leerkes, A. (2006), A Room with a View. Illegal Immigrants in the Legal Capital of the World, Ethnography 7: 209-242. abstract


Leerkes, A. (2004), Embedded crimes? On the overlapping patterns of delinquency among legal and illegal immigrants in the Netherlands, The Netherlands' Journal of Social Sciences, 40 (1), pp. 3-23.